Scandoromani language

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Scandoromani
Tater Language
Rom(m)ani; Romani rakripa
Native toNorway
Native speakers
c. 100–150 (2014)[1]
Speakers mostly elderly. More people speak Swedish with some Roma vocabulary.[1]
Official status
Official language in
recognised minority language in
 Norway (1993)
 Sweden (1999)
Language codes
ISO 639-3Variously:
rmg – Traveller Norwegian
rmu – Tavringer Romani (Sweden)
rmd – Traveller Danish
Glottologtrav1236  Norwegian
tavr1235  Swedish
trav1237  Traveller Danish
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Scandoromani (Swedish: romani, Norwegian: romani, Scandoromani: romani rakripa[2] alt. tavringens rakripa[3][4]), also known as Traveller Norwegian,[5] Tavringer Romani,[6] the Tattare language,[7] and Traveller Danish,[8] is a North Germanic based Para-Romani. It is spoken by the Scandinavian Romanisæl Travellers, a Romani minority community, in Norway (c. 100–150 elderly speakers),[1] and formerly in Sweden.

"Scandoromani" is a term coined by Lenny Lindell. In Sweden, Scandoromani is referred to as resande rommani (Traveller Romani) or svensk rommani (Swedish Romani), while in Norway the same language is known as norsk romani (Norwegian Romani).

Like Angloromani in Britain and Caló in Spain, Scandoromani draws upon a (now extinct) vocabulary of inflected Romani. Much of the original Romani grammar, however, has been lost to the users, and they now communicate in Swedish or Norwegian grammar.

There is no standardised form of Scandoromani, so variations exist in vocabulary, pronunciation, and usage, depending on the speaker. In print, Scandoromani words are often written with Swedish (S) or Norwegian (N) letters (ä, æ, ø, å) and letter combinations to represent Romani sounds, e.g., tj- (/ɕ/) or kj- (/ç/ alt. /tʃ/) to represent the Romani č /tʃ/ and čh /tʃʰ/. Some examples of Scandoromani variant spellings are: tjuro[9] (S) / kjuro[3] (N) 'knife'; gräj[9] (S) / grei[3] (N) 'horse'.

See also[edit]

  • Kalo Finnish Romani language
  • Para-RomaniLenny Lindell

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Carling et al., 2014, Scandoromani: Remnants of a Mixed Language. Leiden: Brill.
  2. ^ Cf. Romani rakripa
  3. ^ a b c Karlsen, Ludvig. "Tavringens Rakripa: Romanifolkets Ordbok" (in Norwegian and Traveller Norwegian). Landsorganisasjonen for Romanifolket. Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. Retrieved November 18, 2008.
  4. ^ A recent suggestion apparently backed by the Swedish Language Council is to call the language Svedo romani (i.e. "Swedish Romani").[1] This usage, however, is not widely documented among Scandoromani speakers.
  5. ^ "Traveller Norwegian in the Language Cloud". Ethnologue. Retrieved September 3, 2019.
  6. ^ "Tavringer Romani in the Language Cloud". Ethnologue. Retrieved September 3, 2019.
  7. ^ LLOW Language Server - Tavringer Romani
  8. ^ "Traveller Danish". Ethnologue. Retrieved September 3, 2019.
  9. ^ a b Resande Folkets Riksorganisation (2006). Ordlista i resandespråket romani (in Swedish and Traveller Norwegian) (2nd ed.). Malmö: Föreningen Resande Folkets Riksorganisation. ISBN 91-631-9668-9.
  • Hancock, Ian (1992) "The Social and Linguistic Development of Scandoromani", Jahr, Ernst Håkon (ed.), Language Contact: Theoretical and Empirical Studies, Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter, ISBN 3-11-012802-0, pp. 37–52
  • 2014 Lenny Lindell – Scandoromani Remnants of a Mixed Language. (Brills) ISBN 9789004266445[3]

Suggested further reading[edit]

  • Lindell, Lenny; Thorbjörnsson-Djerf, Kenth (2008). Carling, Gerd (ed.). Ordbok över svensk romani: Resandefolkets språk och sånger (in Swedish). Stockholm: Podium. ISBN 978-91-89196-43-8. (A lexicon and grammatical overview of Swedish Scandoromani; includes several Traveller song texts in extenso)
  • Baardsen, Gjest: Vandrings- eller skøiersprog; med tillegg av F. L. Hartman og N. Olsen. (Ord og sed; 132) Oslo : Noregs boklag Helge Refsum, 1948
  • Baardsen, Gjest: "Samling af de mest forrekommende Ord i det saakaldte Vandrings eller Skøiersprog" from Digital Archives
  • Iversen, Ragnvald: The Rodi (Rotwelsch) in Norway. (Secret languages in Norway; 2) Oslo : I kommisjon hos Dybwad, 1945 [2]

External links[edit]

  • Traveller Norwegian-Norwegian word list (in Norwegian)
  • Examples of Scandoromani text from the websites of the Swedish Parliament and the Swedish Language Council